When it comes to assessing deterrence in relation to drug-related crime, Harm Reduction International says finding reliable ways to measure the impact of executions is a big challenge for researchers. Representation of drug offenders in the prison population? Hospital admissions for drug-related issues? Overdose statistics which can be brought down anyway with simple and cheap harm reduction interventions?
Moreover, which drugs: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, so-called 'party drugs' like ecstasy? Would a reduction in arrests for marijuana represent a successful indicator for all drugs? Anecdotally, one could say harsh drug laws do not work. For example, Iran has some of the toughest drug laws in the world and a high prevalence of injection drug use. Sweden does not have the death penalty and it has comparatively low rates of problematic drug use.
In their book, Professors Hood and Hoyle agree that producing evidence is difficult. They write that in all 33 countries with the death penalty for drug offences, "it has been argued that the death penalty is an indisputable deterrent to drug trafficking, but no evidence of a statistical kind has been forthcoming to support this contention".
Iran has some of the toughest drug laws in the world and a high prevalence of injection drug use. In Mr Lynch's review of Indonesia's use of the death penalty and the Bali Nine case, he quotes Professor Fagan's expert testimony used in an attempt to appeal the death sentences for Mr Chan and Mr Sukumaran on a human rights basis. Professor Fagan "described extensive studies showing that criminals are deterred more by an increase in their likelihood of apprehension than by an increase in the magnitude of their punishment, meaning that likely capture is a more effective deterrent than potential death," Mr Lynch wrote.
Professor Fagan argued that the comparative drug crime rates in Singapore and Indonesia, when compared with death sentences handed down showed that there was no deterrent effect. However, wholesale drug prices for both cocaine and heroin were significantly higher in Indonesia than in Singapore from to , and drugs generally were more prevalent in Singapore than Indonesia in that period, indicating that drug trafficking was not deterred as a result of Singapore's high levels of capital punishment," the article says.
Mr Lynch wrote that a typical factor in drug-trafficking cases is the potential for large monetary gains, for which a trafficker might be prepared to risk even the death penalty. He quoted research discussing "the overwhelming effect of drug smugglers' potential financial gains, including one smuggler's comment that 'the money overrode any—any rational judgment'.
There is scant research on whether the death penalty deters drug trafficking. Experts who have considered the issue of the death penalty as a punishment for murder, and in some cases drug offences, around the world, say there is not enough evidence to conclude that the death penalty deters.
Topics: government-and-politics , law-crime-and-justice , australia , indonesia. First posted February 26, Send us your tip-offs, or let us know what you think. From marathon runners to Nobel Peace Prize winners to trailblazing scientists, history has been made. Scott Morrison likes to be in control but he's now at the mercy of two forces he can't keep in check, writes Michelle Grattan.
By Chloe Hart. By business reporter Daniel Ziffer.
Australia's financial regulators have watched tech disruptors roll in and rip up the rule book. They're not going to let 'fintech' companies do the same. The claim: Victorian Supreme Court judge Lex Lasry says the death penalty does not deter crime, "it's just a terrible thing to do". The verdict: There is scant research on whether the death penalty deters drug trafficking.
Sorry, this video has expired. Contact Send us your tip-offs, or let us know what you think. Connect with Fact Check. Opinion: The drought's harsh political lesson Scott Morrison likes to be in control but he's now at the mercy of two forces he can't keep in check, writes Michelle Grattan. Regulating fintechs By business reporter Daniel Ziffer Australia's financial regulators have watched tech disruptors roll in and rip up the rule book.
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Through litigation, legislation, and advocacy against this barbaric and brutal institution, we strive to prevent executions and seek the abolition of capital punishment. The death penalty system in the US is applied in an unfair and unjust manner against people, largely dependent on how much money they have, the skill of their attorneys, race of the victim and where the crime took place.
People of color are far more likely to be executed than white people, especially if thevictim is white. The death penalty is a waste of taxpayer funds and has no public safety benefit. The vast majority of law enforcement professionals surveyed agree that capital punishment does not deter violent crime; a survey of police chiefs nationwide found they rank the death penalty lowest among ways to reduce violent crime. They ranked increasing the number of police officers, reducing drug abuse, and creating a better economy with more jobs higher than the death penalty as the best ways to reduce violence.
The FBI has found the states with the death penalty have the highest murder rates. Innocent people are too often sentenced to death.
Nationally, at least one person is exonerated for every 10 that are executed. In , the Supreme Court declared that under then-existing laws "the imposition and carrying out of the death penalty… constitutes cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments.
Georgia , U. The Court, concentrating its objections on the manner in which death penalty laws had been applied, found the result so "harsh, freakish, and arbitrary" as to be constitutionally unacceptable. Making the nationwide impact of its decision unmistakable, the Court summarily reversed death sentences in the many cases then before it, which involved a wide range of state statutes, crimes and factual situations.
But within four years after the Furman decision, several hundred persons had been sentenced to death under new state capital punishment statutes written to provide guidance to juries in sentencing. These statutes require a two-stage trial procedure, in which the jury first determines guilt or innocence and then chooses imprisonment or death in the light of aggravating or mitigating circumstances. In , the Supreme Court moved away from abolition, holding that "the punishment of death does not invariably violate the Constitution.
Subsequently 38 state legislatures and the Federal government enacted death penalty statutes patterned after those the Court upheld in Gregg. Congress also enacted and expanded federal death penalty statutes for peacetime espionage by military personnel and for a vast range of categories of murder. Executions resumed in Since then, states have developed a range of processes to ensure that mentally retarded individuals are not executed. Many have elected to hold proceedings prior to the merits trial, many with juries, to determine whether an accused is mentally retarded.
In , the Supreme Court held that the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed, resulting in commutation of death sentences to life for dozens of individuals across the country. As of August , over 3, men and women are under a death sentence and more than 1, men, women and children at the time of the crime have been executed since Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Gregg v. Georgia , et al, the ACLU continues to oppose capital punishment on moral, practical, and constitutional grounds:.
Starting Sentence Option 1: Studies show that the death penalty [is/is not] a 2: There is enough evidence to show that capital punishment [is/is not] effective in. Look through the death penalty research paper. Rehabilitation centers are also effective avenues for helping drug addicts and all kinds of.
Capital punishment is cruel and unusual. It is cruel because it is a relic of the earliest days of penology, when slavery, branding, and other corporal punishments were commonplace.
Like those barbaric practices, executions have no place in a civilized society. It is unusual because only the United States of all the western industrialized nations engages in this punishment. It is also unusual because only a random sampling of convicted murderers in the United States receive a sentence of death.
Capital punishment denies due process of law. Its imposition is often arbitrary, and always irrevocable — forever depriving an individual of the opportunity to benefit from new evidence or new laws that might warrant the reversal of a conviction, or the setting aside of a death sentence. The death penalty violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection. It is applied randomly — and discriminatorily. It is imposed disproportionately upon those whose victims are white, offenders who are people of color, and on those who are poor and uneducated and concentrated in certain geographic regions of the country.
The death penalty is not a viable form of crime control. When police chiefs were asked to rank the factors that, in their judgment, reduce the rate of violent crime, they mentioned curbing drug use and putting more officers on the street, longer sentences and gun control. They ranked the death penalty as least effective. Politicians who preach the desirability of executions as a method of crime control deceive the public and mask their own failure to identify and confront the true causes of crime.
Capital punishment wastes limited resources. It squanders the time and energy of courts, prosecuting attorneys, defense counsel, juries, and courtroom and law enforcement personnel. It unduly burdens the criminal justice system, and it is thus counterproductive as an instrument for society's control of violent crime.
Limited funds that could be used to prevent and solve crime and provide education and jobs are spent on capital punishment. Opposing the death penalty does not indicate a lack of sympathy for murder victims. On the contrary, murder demonstrates a lack of respect for human life.