Answered By: Jennifer Harris. Shortened note after it has been used once : 4. Web Page, Author 1. Web Page, Group Author 3. Web Page, No Author 8. Toggle action bar FAQ Actions. Print Tweet Share on Facebook Was this helpful? About FAQs. Link to Question Form. Related FAQs. Use either hanging indentations or indent only the first line. Do not rely only on citation-generating software or websites or on the citation provided by the database where you found the article. The Manual , states, "The variety of sources typically cited in a scholarly work, however, nearly always precludes an acceptable result from software alone.
Videos , sound recordings , and other multimedia sources should be listed in their own section in the reference list, not mixed with your text sources. Court cases , statutes , laws , codes , bills , constitutions , and similar government documents should be cited with numbered notes at the end of your paper, following most of the rules in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation see the printed manual for exceptions.
Do not include them in the reference list. Citations should be arranged alphabetically, letter by letter, by the author's or editor's last name. If a source has no author or editor, alphabetize it by the first word of the title. Authors All authors should be listed, no matter how many there are.
Indent the first line of each note by five spaces. Richmond: J. Alex, NLM uses a numeric system. IEEE uses a numeric system. Hodges , discussed how, during the turbulent s, science fiction programs on television reflected the public's attitudes toward the older generation. The, A, An and some business titles e.
Include the author's complete name, not just the initials. If the author uses two initials instead of a name, put a space after the first period. Corporate authors : a company, organization, or government agency can also be an author. If the organization has a long name, create an abbreviation for it if an official abbreviation does not already exist , and begin the reference with that, followed by the organization's full name in parentheses. If that organization is also the publisher, use the abbreviation where you would normally put the publisher's name.
Use the abbreviation in the parenthetical reference. See the examples under the Websites and Parenthetical References tabs. United States government agencies: It is not necessary to include "US" at the beginning unless it is needed to avoid confusion. You may name only the specific agency, not the entire hierarchy of departments that oversee it.
If you do list them, put commas between units. If there is no author , start with the title and then the date. If you use more than one source by an author, arrange them by date. Include the name only in the first entry.
The following entries should begin with a 3-em dash or six hyphens , followed by a period, the date, and the rest of the information e. If you use more than one source by an author with the same date , alphabetize them by title and place a lower case letter a, b, c, etc. Include the letters in your parenthetical references e.
Dates Books: If more than one date for a book is given, use the most recent. If no date is given, use n. Note that it is lowercased and that there is no space after the first period.
In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text. To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a. Cite your source automatically in Chicago style. Website Style Chart. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.
Do not use this with websites. If it is not the first edition , include the edition statement abbreviated right after the title e. Place of publication , etc.
Journals: It is only necessary to include the year , not the month or day. Newspapers, magazines, blogs: Include the year, month, and day. Note that the month and day if there is one are separated from the year and are placed after the title. Websites and online sources: It is only necessary to include the year , not the month or day - unless it is a modification date or access date see below or the item is a blog, online newspaper, or online magazine see above.
Include the date that you looked at it although documents being written for professional publication should not include it unless no other date is available. If there is a revision or modification date in addition to or instead of a creation date, include that. Use it instead of the creation date for sources that are likely to be continuously changed, such as wikis.
In this case, note that the month and day are separated from the year and are placed after the title. If there is no date , use the date that you looked at the webpage.
Note that the month and day are separated from the year and are placed after the title. Do not use n. Audio, video, and multimedia: The first date listed should be the date that the video or recording was originally made. The date that it was posted online or rereleased in a different medium such as the CD version of an LP record comes later in the citation.
Note that the month and day if available are separated from the year and are placed after the title. Titles Capitalize the first letter of every word except: "a," "an," "and," "as," "but," "for," "nor," "or," "the," "to," and all prepositions unless they are being used adjectively or adverbially. However, do capitalize any of these words if they are the first or last word of a title or subtitle. Use italics for the titles of books , periodicals i.
Use "quotation marks" for the titles of periodical articles , book chapters , encyclopedia articles , individual web pages , individual blog entries , unpublished works, dissertations, theses, and individual podcasts. Use no italics and no quotation marks for the titles of databases , most websites unless it is an online encyclopedia or book , book series, and regular columns in periodicals place the column title after the article title and before the periodical title.
If a periodical begins with the word, " The ," do not include it. Do include it with books , blogs , and other sources. For lesser known newspapers that do not include the city name as part of their title, include the city and sometimes the state in parentheses as if it were part of the title. Titles within titles TWT are when the title of one work appears inside the title of another work. If the full title is placed within quotation marks: the TWT for books and periodicals are placed in italics. The TWT for articles and webpages are placed within 'single quotes.
Volume and issue numbers Multivolume books : Do not put spaces before or after the colon between the volume and page numbers e. Journals : If the journal continues the page numbering from issue to issue throughout the volume paginated by volume , it is not necessary to include the issue number. Include a space between the volume and issue number and between the colon and page number e. If there is no issue number , do not put spaces before or after the colon e. Page numbers: Abbreviate the ranges of page numbers as follows: When the first page number is under or ends with "00," include all of the digits in the final page number.
When the first page number has a "0" as the second-to-last digit, abbreviate the final page number by including only the digits that change e.
In all other situations, abbreviate the final page number by including only the digits that change, but you must include at least two or more digits. Use hyphens, not en dashes. Your word processor might automatically use en dashes. If the first page is given but not the last page, use ff. Online sources with no page numbers : With short documents posted as a single, scrolling page, no page numbers are needed.